Python Cryptography with Crypto.Cipher: Download and Examples
Download Crypto.Cipher Python: A Guide to Cryptography in Python
Cryptography is the process of hiding or coding information so that only the intended recipients can read and understand it. It is a vital tool for securing communication and data in the digital world. In this article, you will learn what cryptography is, how it works, and how to use the Crypto.Cipher Python package to perform various cryptographic operations in Python.
What is cryptography and why is it important?
Cryptography is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of adversarial behavior. It combines various disciplines like mathematics, computer science, engineering, and information security to create complex codes that hide the true meaning of a message. Cryptography can be traced back to ancient times, but it remains relevant and essential in the modern age of technology.
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Cryptography definition and examples
A common cryptography definition is the process of converting readable information (plaintext) to unintelligible nonsense text (ciphertext), which can only be read by reversing the process (decryption). The sender of an encrypted message shares the decryption technique only with the intended recipients to prevent access from unauthorized parties. The cryptography literature often uses the names "Alice" (or "A") for the sender, "Bob" (or "B") for the intended recipient, and "Eve" (or "E") for the eavesdropping adversary.
Some examples of cryptography are:
Encrypting messages or files using passwords or keys
Signing documents or transactions using digital signatures
Verifying identities or credentials using certificates or tokens
Generating random numbers or strings using cryptographic algorithms
Cryptography types and techniques
There are three types of cryptography techniques:
Symmetric cryptography: both parties use the same key for encrypting and decrypting data. Symmetric cryptography is fast and efficient, but it requires a secure way of exchanging keys. Some examples of symmetric algorithms are AES, DES, RC4, etc.
Asymmetric cryptography: senders and receivers use different keys. Senders encrypt with public keys (non-secret) whereas receivers decrypt with private keys (secret). Asymmetric cryptography is slow and complex, but it does not require a secure way of exchanging keys. Some examples of asymmetric algorithms are RSA, ECC, DSA, etc.
Hybrid cryptography: a combination of symmetric and asymmetric cryptography. An asymmetric algorithm is used to protect a short-lived symmetric key, and a symmetric algorithm (under that key) encrypts the actual message. Hybrid cryptography inherits the benefits of both types. A common example of hybrid cryptography is SSL/TLS.
Cryptography applications and benefits
Cryptography has many applications and benefits in various domains, such as:
Privacy and confidentiality: individuals and organizations use cryptography to protect their privacy and keep their data confidential. Cryptography ensures that only authorized parties can access sensitive information.
Authentication and integrity: cryptography can also prove the authenticity and integrity of data. Cryptography ensures that data is not altered or tampered with while in storage or transit.
Non-repudiation: cryptography can also confirm accountability and responsibility from the sender of a message. Cryptography ensures that a sender cannot deny their intentions or actions when they created or transmitted data.
Security and Security and trust: cryptography can also enhance security and trust in various systems and networks. Cryptography ensures that data is protected from unauthorized access, modification, or deletion.
What is Crypto.Cipher and how does it work?
Crypto.Cipher is a Python package that provides a collection of cryptographic modules for performing encryption and decryption operations. It is part of the PyCryptodome library, which is a fork of the PyCrypto library. Crypto.Cipher supports various symmetric and asymmetric algorithms, as well as hash functions and random number generators.
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Crypto.Cipher overview and features
Crypto.Cipher has the following features:
It is compatible with Python 2.6 and 3.4 or higher
It supports both low-level and high-level interfaces for cryptographic operations
It offers various modes of operation for symmetric algorithms, such as ECB, CBC, CTR, OFB, etc.
It implements various padding schemes for symmetric algorithms, such as PKCS#7, ISO 7816-4, etc.
It provides various options for key derivation and key management, such as PBKDF2, scrypt, etc.
It supports various formats for encoding and decoding keys, such as PEM, DER, etc.
It includes various utilities for generating and verifying signatures, certificates, etc.
Crypto.Cipher installation and usage
To install Crypto.Cipher, you need to have Python and pip installed on your system. You can use the following command to install Crypto.Cipher from PyPI:
pip install pycryptodome
To use Crypto.Cipher in your Python code, you need to import the relevant modules from the package. For example, to use AES (Advanced Encryption Standard), you can use the following statement:
from Crypto.Cipher import AES
Crypto.Cipher supported algorithms and modes
Crypto.Cipher supports the following algorithms and modes:
AlgorithmDescriptionKey SizeBlock Size
AESAdvanced Encryption Standard128/192/256 bits128 bits
DESData Encryption Standard64 bits (56 effective)64 bits
DES3Triple DES128/192 bits (112/168 effective)64 bits
BLOWFISHA symmetric block cipher designed by Bruce Schneier32-448 bits64 bits
CAMELLIAA symmetric block cipher designed by NTT and Mitsubishi Electric Corporation128/192/256 bits128 bits
RSAA public-key cryptosystem for encryption and digital signaturesVariable (1024-4096 bits recommended)N/A
ECCAn elliptic curve cryptosystem for encryption and digital signaturesVariable (160-521 bits recommended)N/A
DHA key exchange protocol based on the discrete logarithm problem<
Variable (1024-4096 bits recommended)<
Mode of OperationDescription
ECB (Electronic Codebook)A simple mode that encrypts each block independently. It is not secure because it reveals patterns in the plaintext.
CBC (Cipher Block Chaining)A mode that chains each block with the previous one using an XOR operation. It requires an initialization vector (IV) to start the chain.
CTR (Counter)A mode that uses a counter value to generate a keystream that is XORed with the plaintext. It does not require padding and allows random access.
OFB (Output Feedback)A mode that uses a feedb